Vaccine - Typhoid

This is a vaccine that decreases the risk of getting typhoid fever, a life-threatening bacterial illness also known as enteric fever.

This is a vaccine that decreases the risk of getting typhoid fever, a life-threatening bacterial illness also known as enteric fever.

The typhoid vaccine is given to prevent infection caused by typhoid bacteria. Typhoid fever is most commonly acquired from water or food that has been contaminated by the stool of someone who is infected with the bacteria. Initial symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Increasing fatigue
  • Headache
  • Anorexia
  • A rash can sometimes occur after 2–3 weeks of illness
  • Life-threatening complications include intestinal bleeding or development of a hole in the wall of the intestines (perforation)

Typhoid fever is uncommon in the United States. Therefore, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) does not recommend routine typhoid vaccination in the United States. The vaccine is recommended for:

  • Travelers to areas of the world where there is an increased risk of typhoid fever
  • People with close exposure to someone who is a documented carrier of typhoid
  • Microbiologists and other lab workers routinely exposed to the bacteria that causes typhoid

There are two types of typhoid vaccines currently available in the United States.

  • The Typhim Vi vaccine is administered by a single injection. It contains dead bacteria. This vaccine is approved for adults and children over two years of age.
  • The Ty21a vaccine is given by mouth in four doses on alternating days. It contains weakened, live bacteria. This vaccine is approved for adults and children six years of age and older.
  • Patients who have a compromised immune system, or are on antibiotics or antimalarial medications, should not be given the Ty21a vaccine because it contains live bacteria.

Some additional information about the typhoid vaccine.

  • Specific information about the risk of typhoid around the world is readily available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The link to the CDC is included in the Benefits, Risks and More Information section.
  • The typhoid vaccine is not a substitute for careful selection and preparation of food and beverages, especially when traveling to areas where typhoid is common.
  • The typhoid vaccines are not one hundred percent effective. If someone is exposed to a large number of typhoid bacteria, the vaccine may not be effective.

Contact your healthcare provider to see if you have been exposed to, or are at risk for, infection with the bacteria that cause typhoid. Here is a list of questions you can ask about the combination hepatitis vaccine.

  • Do you recommend this vaccine for me, and why?
  • Does this vaccine need boosters, and when?
  • What are the side effects of this vaccine?
  • What are the risks if I do not get the vaccine?


Also known as:

Enteric Fever
Typhim Vi
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